Deliberative democracy

__Deliberative democracy__ or __discursive democracy__ is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making. It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule - wikipedia

Although political theorists took the lead in the study of deliberative democracy, political scientists have in recent years begun to investigate its processes - scribd

Deliberative democracy differs from traditional democratic political theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere vote, is the primary source of legitimacy for the law

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While deliberative democracy is generally seen as some form of an amalgam of representative democracy and direct democracy, the actual relationship is usually open to dispute. Some practitioners and theorists use the term to encompass representative bodies whose members authentically deliberate on legislation without unequal distributions of power, while others use the term exclusively to refer to decision-making directly by lay citizens, as in direct democracy.

The term "deliberative democracy" was originally coined by Joseph M. Bessette in his 1980 work ''Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government''.

# Overview

The term "deliberative democracy" was originally coined by Joseph M. Bessette in his 1980 work Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government.

Deliberative democracy holds that, for a democratic decision to be legitimate, it must be preceded by authentic deliberation, not merely the aggregation of preferences that occurs in voting.

If the decision-makers cannot reach consensus after authentically deliberating on a proposal, then they vote on the proposal using a form of majority rule.

The roots of deliberative democracy can be traced back to Aristotle and his notion of politics; however, the German philosopher J├╝rgen Habermas's work on communicative rationality and the public sphere is often identified as a major work in this area.

In Elitist deliberative democracy, principles of deliberative democracy apply to elite societal decision-making bodies, such as legislatures and courts.

One purpose of populist deliberative democracy can be to use deliberation among a group of lay citizens to distill a more authentic public opinion about societal issues but not directly create binding law; devices such as the deliberative opinion poll have been designed to achieve this goal.

In Populist deliberative democracy, principles of deliberative democracy apply to groups of lay citizens who are empowered to make decisions.

Another purpose of populist deliberative democracy can be to serve as a form of direct democracy, where deliberation among a group of lay citizens forms a "public will" and directly creates binding law.

# Critisisms

The political philosopher Charles Blattberg has criticized deliberative democracy on four grounds: 1. the rules for deliberation that deliberative theorists affirm interfere with, rather than facilitate, good practical reasoning. 1. deliberative democracy is ideologically biased in favour of liberalism as well as republican over parliamentary democratic systems. 1. deliberative democrats assert a too-sharp division between just and rational deliberation on the one hand and self-interested and coercive bargaining or negotiation on the other. 1. deliberative democrats encourage an adversarial relationship between state and society, one that undermines solidarity between citizens.

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