Good governance

__Good governance__ is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources - wikipedia

Governance is:

the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).

The term ''governance'' can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the interactions between other sectors of society

The concept of "good governance" often emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society.

Because countries often described as "most successful" are Western liberal democracy, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states.

Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of "good governance" to a set of requirements that conform to the organization's agenda, making "good governance" imply many different things in many different contexts.

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# Sections

# In scientific exploration

Before there can be scientific experimentation, organizations must be compliant with good governance, meaning that testing must be moral and practical.

The Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (a geoengineering research project that was formed in the UK), was required to go through stages of evaluation before testing could be conducted if they were to be funded by stakeholders.

In 2011 SPICE made plans to experiment with solar radiation. The method for this experiment included injecting Stratospheric sulfate aerosols (geoengineering) into the Earth's atmosphere - wikipedia

The criteria or "stage-gate" that they must pass before performing their experiment included the following; - identify safe and principle risks - test must be compliant with relevant regulations - future applications and impacts - mechanisms put in place to review these in the light of new information - stakeholders must be regarded and taken into account.

Before research can be conducted in the field of geoengineering it must be scrutinized using good governance to ensure testing isn't harmful to the environment and to detail all the possible risks that may occur.

# Scholarly approaches

Nayef Al-Rodhan, in his 2009 book ''Sustainable History and the Dignity of Man: A Philosophy of History and Civilisational Triumph'', proposed eight minimum criteria for ensuring good national governance.

Al-Rodhan's eight minimum criteria are: 1. Participation, equity, and inclusiveness, 1. Rule of law 1. Separation of powers 1. Free, independent, and responsible media 1. Government legitimacy 1. Accountability 1. Transparency 1. Limiting the distorting effect of money in politics.

In the book, he argues that good national governance is an important component in creating a history of sustainability for the human race. For Al-Rodhan, the eight minimal criteria of good governance are expressions of the fundamental values of democracy and more liberal constitutionalism - wikipedia

The Tuskegee syphilis experiment from 1932 to 1972 led to the signing of the National Research Act. This law outlined basic ethical ways in which research is to be carried out.

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) made regulations that required voluntary agreements for anyone who was to take part in their studies. Governance is used in scientific studies to ensure that policies are safe and ethical when studies are being done on human subjects.

After the National Research Act there have been other organization put in place such as the Ethics Advisory Board, which reviews biomedical research. Many federal agencies adopted the Federal Policy for Protection of Human Rights in 1991. In 1995 President Bill Clinton established the National Bioethics Advisory Commission led by the Department of Health and Human Services with the task of reviewing regulations and policies to ensure the safety of research volunteers.

# Criticism

According to Sam Agere, "The discretionary space left by the lack of a clear well-defined scope for what governance encompasses allows users to choose and set their own parameters." - wikipedia

In the book ''Contesting 'good' governance'', Eva Poluha and Mona Rosendahl contest standards that are common to western democracy as measures of "goodness" in government. By applying political anthropology methods, they conclude that while governments believe they apply concepts of good governance while making decisions, cultural differences can cause conflict with the heterogeneous standards of the international community.

An additional source of good governance criticism is ''The Intelligent Person's Guide to Good Governance'', written by Surendra Munshi. Munshi's work was created in order to "revive" good governance. Many individuals tend to either wave away and be bored with the idea of governance, or not have a clue to what it has at all. This book is a generalized discussion on what the purpose of good governance is and how it serves that purpose throughout our society. Munshi targets the book toward anyone doing research or just simply "those concerned with the issue of governance".

''Rethinking Systems: Configurations of Politics and Policy in Contemporary Governance'', written by Michael P. Crozier, is another work analyzing good governance. Crozier's article discusses the different dynamics of changes that occur throughout communication systems and the effect it has on governance. The idea of various perspectives is presented throughout the article. This allows the reader to be able to see what contemporary governance is like from different viewpoints. Crozier's motive was to also create an open mindset when referring to how governance and policy within society operate, especially with the constant changes occurring day to day.

# See also