In the book, Bruno Latour argues that ecological political movements (e.g. greens) should embraces the idea that "political ecology has nothing to do with nature".
Latour uses Plato's metaphor of "the cave" to describe the current role of nature and science in separating facts from values which is the role of politics and non-scientists. Building on the arguments levelled in his previous works, Latour argues that this distinction between facts and values is rarely useful and in many situations dangerous.
In fact, Latour argues that the idea of nature is unfair because it unfairly allows those engaged in political discourse to "short-circuit" discussions.
He claims that it leads to a system that ignores nature's socially constructed status and creates a political order without Due Process of Individual Will.
Instead, he calls for a New Constitution where different individuals can assemble democratically without the definitions of facts and values influenced by current attitudes towards nature and scientific knowledge.
Latour describes an alternate set of rules by which this assembly, or collective as he calls it, might come together and be constituted.
He also describes the way that entities will be allowed in or out in the future. In describing this collective, Latour draws attention to the Role of the Spokesperson, who must be doubted but who must speak for otherwise mute things in order to ensure that the collective involves both Humans and Non-humans. This is also an important aspect of Actor Network Theory that can be found in his main sociological works.